Synovial chondromatosis is a rare, benign monoarticular condition characterized by the metaplastic formation of cartilaginous nodules from the synovium of joints (intra-articular), tendons and bursae (extra-articular). These nodules have the potential to detach and form loose bodies within the joint space. The most common locations are the large joints such as the knees, hips, elbows, and shoulders, with less common locations being the foot and ankle joints. Synovial chondromatosis primarily occurs in men between the third and fifth decades of life, and it typically presents as chronic joint pain with swelling, decreased joint range of motion, and osteoarthritis. Treatment is usually centered on excision and retrieval of nodules and loose bodies. Prognosis is usually good with a low-moderate likelihood of recurrence.


We report the very rare case of a 27-year-old male with recurrent intra- and extra-articular ankle synovial chondromatosis, who also reported symptoms consistent with tarsal tunnel syndrome. His initial presentation was left ankle pain which was managed by open surgical debridement. Two years after, he re-presented with continued pain and tingling along the plantar aspect of his foot. On his second presentation, a dual approach was taken with arthroscopic as well as open debridement. He reported resolution of his symptoms postoperatively as well as at 3 years of follow-up.


Simultaneous extra– and intra-articular chondromatosis of the ankle is very rare and can be difficult to treat. It is important to recognize this disease as a rare but plausible cause of tarsal tunnel syndrome. Treatment may be complicated with early or late recurrence despite complete excision, highlighting the need for intentional follow-up of all cases.


Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is a common condition following ankle injury that is associated with compromised balance. Whole body vibration training (WBVT) programmes are linked with improved balance and function in athletic and non-athletic populations and may improve balance in CAI. Twelve healthy and seven CAI participants completed two randomly assigned interventions. Two Power Plate® platforms were attached back to back using a Theraband®. Participants stood on the active plate and inactive plate for WBVT and sham interventions, respectively. Each intervention included vibration of the active plate. Centre of pressure (COP) and the star excursion balance test (SEBT) were measured before and at 3, 15 and 30 min following the interventions. Significant improvements were found in the anterior direction of the SEBT following both interventions in CAI and varying patterns of improvement were observed for COP measurements in all participants. Therefore, WBVT does not appear to acutely improve balance in CAI.


Dislocation of the posterior tibial tendon (PTT) is a rare pathological process that occurs most often as a result of acute trauma. The injury involves forced dorsiflexion and eversion of the foot against a contracted posterior tibialis. Diagnosis of the injury is often difficult secondary to the rarity of the injury and its similarity with other benign injuries of the medial ankle. Routine diagnostic imaging often does not reveal the injury, and advanced imaging with magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound to confirm the diagnosis is often required. The injury can be a result of an abnormal retromalleolar groove or a tear of the flexor retinaculum. Because nonoperative treatment frequently results in poor outcomes with continuing pain and progressive flat foot, operative treatment with repair of the flexor retinaculum with correction of the retromalleolar groove is the most described intervention. We report an acute case of PTT dislocation in a collegiate gymnast during competition and offer our technique for surgical correction in the setting of a partially torn, attenuated flexor retinaculum with plate buttressing of the PTT into its native uncorrected groove.


Anticipatory responses to inversion perturbations can prevent an accurate assessment of lateral ankle sprain mechanics when using injury simulations. Despite recent evidence of the anticipatory motor control strategies utilized during inversion perturbations, kinetic compensations during anticipated inversion perturbations are currently unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of anticipation to an inversion perturbation during a single-leg drop landing on ankle joint and impact kinetics. Fifteen young adults with no lateral ankle sprain history completed unanticipated and anticipated single-leg drop landings onto a 25° laterally inclined platform from a height of 30 cm. One-dimensional statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used to analyze net ankle moments and ground reaction forces (GRF) during the first 150 ms post-landing, while peak GRFs, time to peak GRF, peak and average loading rates were compared using a dependent samples t-test (p ≤ 0.05). Results from the SPM analysis revealed significantly greater plantar flexion moment from 58 to 83 ms post-landing (p = 0.004; d = 0.64-0.77), inversion moment from 89 to 91 ms post-landing (p = 0.050; d = 0.58-0.60), and medial GRF from 62 to 97 ms post-landing (p < 0.001; d = 1.00-2.39) during the unanticipated landing condition. Moreover, significantly greater peak plantarflexion (p < 0.001; d = 1.10) and peak inversion moment (p = 0.007; d = 0.94), as well as greater peak (p = 0.002; d = 1.03) and average (p = 0.042; d = 0.66) medial loading rates, were found during the unanticipated landing condition. Our findings suggest alterations to ankle joint and impact kinetics occur during a single-leg drop landing when inversion perturbations are anticipated. Researchers and practitioners using drop-landings onto a tilted surface to assess lateral ankle sprain injury risk should consider implementing protocols that mitigate anticipatory responses.