Misc

Abstract:

AIM:

This study compared the effect of different resistance training (RT) frequencies on total, android, gynoid and trunk body fat in overweight/obese older women.

METHODS:

Fifty-seven overweight/obese older women (66.9±5.3 years and 39.9±4.9% body fat) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a group performing RT twice a week (G2X), a group performing RT three times a week (G3X), or a non-exercise control group (CG). Both training groups performed the same 12-week RT program consisting of 8 exercises that trained all major muscle groups. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess body composition.

RESULTS:

After the intervention period, both G2X and G3X demonstrated significant (P<0.05) reductions in adiposity compared to the CG for total body fat (G2X=-1.7%, G3X=-2.7%, CG=+2.1%), android fat (G2X=-6.2%, G3X=-7.0%, CG=+8.6%), gynoid fat (G2X=-2.5%, G3X=-2.9%, CG=+1.0%), and trunk fat (G2X=-2.5%, G3X=-3.0%, CG=+2.9%), with no significant differences between training groups.

CONCLUSION:

These results demonstrate that a low-volume 12-week RT program performed two or three times per week causes decreases in total and regional fat deposition with the greatest reductions occurring in the android region.

Abstract:

In many orthopaedic operating rooms, anaesthesia providers routinely wear lead aprons for protection from radiation, but some studies have questioned whether this is needed. We conducted a systematic review to identify studies that measured the amount of radiation that anaesthetists were exposed to in the orthopaedic operating room. Multiple studies have shown that at 1.5 m from the source of radiation, anaesthetists received no radiation, or amounts so small that a person would have to be present in an unreasonable number of operations to receive cumulative doses of any significance. Radiation doses at this distance were often at the limits of the sensitivity of the measuring dosimeter. We question the need to wear lead protection for anaesthesia providers who are routinely at 1.5 m or a greater distance from standard fluoroscopy units.

Abstract:

Upper extremity surgeons are currently faced with a daunting array of anesthesia techniques, ranging from traditional general anesthesia to wide-awake surgery, during which patients can watch their surgeons operate in the morning and return to work as soon as that afternoon. This range of options means that surgeons must consider patient-related factors such as disease process and relevant comorbidities, as well as surgery-related factors such as anatomic location, complexity, length of procedure, and postoperative pain expectations. In general, the least invasive technique is favored, but each patient must be considered individually to ensure the best anesthesia choice.

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of an in-hospital exercise intervention during neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the inflammatory profile and immune cell subpopulation in 20 children with solid tumors (control [n = 11] and exercise group [n = 9]). Although no significant interaction (group × time) effect was found with an analysis of variance test, we found a trend toward an interaction effect for natural killer cells expressing the immunoglobulin-like receptor KIR2DS4, with their numbers remaining stable in the exercise group but increasing in controls. Our data support that exercise interventions are safe in pediatric cancer patients with solid tumors during chemotherapy treatment despite its aggressive, immunosuppressive nature

Abstract:

PURPOSE:

To compare change in numbness and pain after carpal tunnel release in patients with electrophysiologically moderate and severe disease.

METHODS:

We tested the primary null hypothesis that there is no difference in the total Carpal Tunnel Symptoms Scale score 3 months after surgery between patients with moderate and those with severe disease. Ninety-five patients (47 in the moderate cohort, and 48 in the severe cohort) who had miniopen carpal tunnel release between November 2011 and November 2013 were identified from our prospectively collected database. For each patient, the total Carpal Tunnel Symptoms Scale score, as well the numbness and pain subscale scores, at the preoperative and postoperative (2-wk, 1-mo, 2-mo, 3-mo, ≥ 1-y) visits were documented. The data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance.

RESULTS:

Three months after surgery, patients with moderate carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) reported, on average, no symptoms, and patients with severe disease had reduced but unresolved symptoms. Although symptoms diminished in both groups from the preoperative assessment to the 2-week postoperative assessment, patients with severe CTS had comparatively more severe symptoms at all time points with the exception of pain at 2 weeks and 1 year or longer after surgery, at which times there was no significant difference. At 1 year or longer after surgery, 1 (2%) patient with moderate CTS and 9 (19%) patients with severe CTS reported continued symptoms. Preoperative electrodiagnostic severity was the factor most predictive of symptom scores.

CONCLUSIONS:

Patients with severe CTS experience considerable reduction in symptoms after surgery but should be informed that recovery may be more prolonged and, in some cases, incomplete 1 year after carpal tunnel release, particularly with regard to numbness.

TYPE OF STUDY/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:

Prognostic III.

 

Abstract:

The throwing athlete represents a very interesting and challenging patient population to treat. Few other athletes require the unique combination of stability combined with inherent laxity to allow them to achieve peak performance. Treatment of them and their injuries necessitates an understanding of this phenomenon, recognition of common pathologies encountered, and experience in the process. In this section, we will review several of the most common entities that we encounter in the care of throwing athletes and the current literature on these topics as well as describing our approach to the decision-making process with regards to their treatment. We will also review our surgical techniques for each of these when nonoperative care has failed or acute intervention is deemed necessary.

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION:

Acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) have successfully been used in the treatment of nonhealing wounds in patients with diabetes.

METHODS:

A new decellularized biological scaffold derived from human skin, D-ADM, (DermACELL, LifeNet Health, Virginia Beach, VA), has shown increased cell infiltration, host tissue integration, and vascularization in comparison to other ADMs. This clinical investigation evaluated the wound closing properties of D-ADM on 18 full-thickness lower extremity wounds in 15 patients with diabetes over a period of 12 weeks.

RESULTS:

A complete wound closure (100% epithelialization) rate of 58% (7/12) and an average duration of 10 weeks was demonstrated. Wound healing, defined as ≥ 95% wound closure, was established in 83% of the wounds (10/12) by the end of the study treatment.

CONCLUSIONS:

These results compare favorably with other methods of advanced wound care treatment options that utilize skin substitutes to accelerate the healing of difficult-to-treat or chronic wounds.

Abstract:

Effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on throwing velocity. This study examined the effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on maximum throwing velocity. Thirty-four youth baseball players (11-15 years of age) were randomly and equally divided into control and training groups. The training group performed 3 sessions (each 75 minutes) weekly for 4 weeks, which comprised a sport specific warm-up, resistance training with elastic tubing, a throwing program, and stretching. Throwing velocity was assessed initially and at the end of the 4-week conditioning program for both control and training groups. The level of significance used was p < 0.05. After the 4-week conditioning program, throwing velocity increased significantly (from 25.1 ± 2.8 to 26.1 ± 2.8 m·s) in the training group but did not significantly increase in the control group (from 24.2 ± 3.6 to 24.0 ± 3.9 m·s). These results demonstrate that the short-term 4-week baseball conditioning program was effective in increasing throwing velocity in youth baseball players. Increased throwing velocity may be helpful for pitchers (less time for hitters to swing) and position players (decreased time for a runner to advance to the next base).

Abstract:

STUDY DESIGN:

Controlled laboratory study using a repeated-measures, counterbalanced design.

OBJECTIVES:

To test the ability of 8 Swiss ball exercises (roll-out, pike, knee-up, skier, hip extension right, hip extension left, decline push-up, and sitting march right) and 2 traditional abdominal exercises (crunch and bent-knee sit-up) on activating core (lumbopelvic hip complex) musculature.

BACKGROUND:

Numerous Swiss ball abdominal exercises are employed for core muscle strengthening during training and rehabilitation, but there are minimal data to substantiate the ability of these exercises to recruit core muscles. It is also unknown how core muscle recruitment in many of these Swiss ball exercises compares to core muscle recruitment in traditional abdominal exercises such as the crunch and bent-knee sit-up.

METHODS:

A convenience sample of 18 subjects performed 5 repetitions for each exercise. Electromyographic (EMG) data were recorded on the right side for upper and lower rectus abdominis, external and internal oblique, latissimus dorsi, lumbar paraspinals, and rectus femoris, and then normalized using maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs).

RESULTS:

EMG signals during the roll-out and pike exercises for the upper rectus abdominis (63% and 46% MVIC, respectively), lower rectus abdominis (53% and 55% MVIC, respectively), external oblique (46% and 84% MVIC, respectively), and internal oblique (46% and 56% MVIC, respectively) were significantly greater compared to most other exercises, where EMG signals ranged between 7% to 53% MVIC for the upper rectus abdominis, 7% to 44% MVIC for the lower rectus abdominis, 14% to 73% MVIC for the external oblique, and 16% to 47% MVIC for the internal oblique. The lowest EMG signals were consistently found in the sitting march right exercise. Latissimus dorsi EMG signals were greatest in the pike, knee-up, skier, hip extension right and left, and decline push-up (17%-25% MVIC), and least with the sitting march right, crunch, and bent-knee sit-up exercises (7%-8% MVIC). Rectus femoris EMG signal was greatest with the hip extension left exercise (35% MVIC), and least with the crunch, roll-out, hip extension right, and decline push-up exercises (6%-10% MVIC). Lumbar paraspinal EMG signal was relative low (less than 10% MVIC) for all exercises.

CONCLUSIONS:

The roll-out and pike were the most effective exercises in activating upper and lower rectus abdominis, external and internal obliques, and latissimus dorsi muscles, while minimizing lumbar paraspinals and rectus femoris activity. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2010;40(5):265-276, Epub 22 April 2010. doi:10.2519/jospt.2010.3073.

Abstract:

CONTEXT:

Mixed martial arts (MMA) is rapidly growing in popularity in the United States and abroad. This combat sport joins athletes from a wide variety of martial art disciplines, each with characteristic and distinguishing injury profiles, together in competition. Because of increasing participation by professionals and amateurs alike, injuries sustained by MMA athletes have been on the rise.

EVIDENCE AQUISITION:

A review of relevant publications using the search term mixed martial arts and each of its component combat sports (eg, Muay Thai, Brazilian jiu-jitsu) from 1980 through 2015 was completed using PubMed and Google Scholar.

STUDY DESIGN:

Clinical review.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:

Level 5.

RESULTS:

The majority of studies on MMA injuries evaluate those sustained during competition, which range in incidence from 22.9 to 28.6 per 100 fight-participations. Striking-predominant disciplines such as boxing, karate, and Muay Thai have high rates of head and facial injuries, whereas submission-predominant disciplines such as Brazilian jiu-jitsu, judo, and wrestling have high rates of joint injuries.

CONCLUSION:

Numerous studies have evaluated injuries in athletes who participate in MMA and its component disciplines during competition but much remains to be discovered about injuries sustained during training and in specific patient populations such as adolescents and women

Abstract:

The purpose was to examine the effects of a round trip trans-American jet travel on performance, hormonal alterations, and recovery. Ten matched pairs of recreationally trained men were randomized to either a compression group (COMP) (n = 10; age: 23.1 ± 2.4 yr; height: 174.8 ± 5.3 cm; body mass: 84.9 ± 10.16 kg; body fat: 15.3 ± 6.0%) or control group (CONT) (n = 9; age: 23.2 ± 2.3 yr; height: 177.5 ± 6.3 cm; weight: 84.3 ± 8.99 kg; body fat: 15.1 ± 6.4%). Subjects flew directly from Hartford, CT to Los Angeles, CA 1 day before a simulated sport competition (SSC) designed to create muscle damage and returned the next morning on an overnight flight back home. Both groups demonstrated jet lag symptoms and associated decreases in sleep quality at all time points. Melatonin significantly (P < 0.05) increased over the first 2 days and then remained constant until after the SSC. Epinephrine, testosterone, and cortisol values significantly increased above resting values before and after the SSC with norepinephrine increases only after the SSC. Physical performances significantly decreased from control values on each day for the CONT group with COMP group exhibiting no significant declines. Muscle damage markers were significantly elevated following the SSC with the COMP group having significantly lower values while maintaining neuromuscular performance measures that were not different from baseline testing. Trans-American jet travel has a significant impact on parameters related to jet lag, sleep quality, hormonal responses, muscle tissue damage markers, and physical performance with an attenuation observed with extended wear compression garments.