Welcome to the Department of Sports Medicine Research at the Andrews Research & Education Foundation (AREF) in Gulf Breeze, FL.

An active lifestyle and participation in sports have inherent risk. Each person handles the workloads placed on their bodies in a different manner. The introduction of an injury or improvement in performance will vary with each individual. At AREF we strive to find a better approach to look at health and wellness.

Our lab research and evaluations encompass a wide range of activities and movements. Our resources provide us the flexibility and capabilities to capture movement data integrated with force and EMG data over range of activities from ergonomics to professional sports actions. We work with our physicians, physical therapists, and other team members to utilize our lab to enhance and improve the quality of care given to each patient.

The Musculoskeletal Research Laboratory has recently been updated to support our research efforts. Our laboratory has the following equipment:

3D Motion Capture:

  • Vicon Nexus 3-D Motion Capture system with 13 cameras
  • Ascension electromagnetic tracking system with 14 sensors

Force Platforms:

  • 4 Bertec force platforms

Instrumented Treadmill:

  • Treadmetrix instrumented treadmill

Surface EMG:

  • Noraxon DTS Telemetered 16 channel EMG system
  • OT Bioeletronnica Quattrocento High Density EMG system

Isokinetic Dynamometer:

  • HUMAC Norm


  • Vicon Nexus 2
  • MotionMonitor xGen


Test-retest Reliability of Three-Dimensional Kinematics Using an Electromagnetic Tracking System during a Single-leg Step Down and Baseball Pitching

The purpose of this study is to assess test-retest reliability for intra-rater reliability for kinematic data during baseball pitching and during a single-leg step-down (SLS) task. The results of this study will be used to establish that the motion analysis testing procedures for baseball pitching utilized can be reliably reproduced.

Status: Enrolling baseball pitchers between the ages of 9-39.


Changes in the Long Head of the Biceps Tendon Following Throwing in Baseball Pitchers and Softball Pitchers

 A common symptom among softball pitchers is anterior shoulder pain. With the increased incidence of anterior shoulder pain, particularly the biceps tendon, examination of biceps tendon in these athletes could prove beneficial. The purpose of this study is to compare acute changes in the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) in baseball and softball pitchers following a standardized acute bout of throwing. We hypothesize that an increase in LHBT longitudinal thickness, transverse thickness, transverse width, and echogenicity will be greater in softball pitchers compared to baseball pitchers.

Status: Enrolling baseball and softball pitchers between the ages of 14-23.


Prospective Player-Reported Injuries in Fastpitch Softball Pitchers

The upper extremity is among the most frequently injured body regions in high school softball players. Understanding the injuries sustained during youth could possibly shed light on injury prevention protocols in attempt to not only curtail injuries at the youth level but also throughout their competitive years. However, studies examining upper extremity injury in youth softball players are lacking. The purpose of this study is to perform a descriptive analysis of player-reported pain/injuries in fastpitch softball pitchers who compete on travel teams.

Status: Enrolling softball pitchers between the ages of 10-18.